

Standards that all students are expected to achieve in the
course of their studies are unmarked.
Standards that all students should have the opportunity to learn
are marked with an asterisk (*).
Atomic and Molecular Structure
 The periodic table displays the elements in increasing atomic
number and shows how periodicity of the physical and chemical
properties of the elements relates to atomic structure. As a
basis for understanding this concept:
 Students know how to relate the position of an
element in the periodic table to its atomic number and atomic
mass.
 Students know how to use the periodic table to
identify metals, semimetals, nonmetals, and halogens.
 Students know how to use the periodic table to
identify alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and transition
metals, trends in ionization energy, electronegativity,
and the relative sizes of ions and atoms.
 Students know how to use the periodic table to
determine the number of electrons available for bonding.
 Students know the nucleus of the atom is much
smaller than the atom yet contains most of its mass.
 * Students know how to use the periodic table
to identify the lanthanide, actinide, and transactinide
elements and know that the transuranium elements were synthesized
and identified in laboratory experiments through the use
of nuclear accelerators.
 * Students know how to relate the position of
an element in the periodic table to its quantum electron
configuration and to its reactivity with other elements
in the table.
 * Students know the experimental basis for Thomson's
discovery of the electron, Rutherford's nuclear atom, Millikan's
oil drop experiment, and Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric
effect.
 * Students know the experimental basis for the
development of the quantum theory of atomic structure and
the historical importance of the Bohr model of the atom.
 * Students know that spectral lines are the result
of transitions of electrons between energy levels and that
these lines correspond to photons with a frequency related
to the energy spacing between levels by using Planck's relationship
(E = hv).
Chemical Bonds
 Biological, chemical, and physical properties of matter result
from the ability of atoms to form bonds from electrostatic forces
between electrons and protons and between atoms and molecules.
As a basis for understanding this concept:
 Students know atoms combine to form molecules
by sharing electrons to form covalent or metallic bonds
or by exchanging electrons to form ionic bonds.
 Students know chemical bonds between atoms in
molecules such as H2 , CH4
, NH3 , H2
CCH2 , N2
, Cl2 , and many large biological
molecules are covalent.
 Students know salt crystals, such as NaCl, are
repeating patterns of positive and negative ions held together
by electrostatic attraction.
 Students knowthe atoms and molecules in liquids
move in a random pattern relative to one another because
the intermolecular forces are too weak to hold the atoms
or molecules in a solid form.
 Students know how to draw Lewis dot structures.
 * Students know how to predict the shape of simple
molecules and their polarity from Lewis dot structures.
 * Students know how electronegativity and ionization
energy relate to bond formation.
 * Students know how to identify solids and liquids
held together by van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding
and relate these forces to volatility and boiling/ melting
point temperatures.
Conservation of Matter and Stoichiometry
 The conservation of atoms in chemical reactions leads to
the principle of conservation of matter and the ability to calculate
the mass of products and reactants. As a basis for understanding
this concept:
 Students know how to describe chemical reactions
by writing balanced equations.
 Students know the quantity one mole is set by
defining one mole of carbon 12 atoms to have a mass of exactly
12 grams.
 Students know one mole equals 6.02x1023particles
(atoms or molecules).
 Students know how to determine the molar mass
of a molecule from its chemical formula and a table of atomic
masses and how to convert the mass of a molecular substance
to moles, number of particles, or volume of gas at standard
temperature and pressure.
 Students know how to calculate the masses of
reactants and products in a chemical reaction from the mass
of one of the reactants or products and the relevant atomic
masses.
 * Students know how to calculate percent yield
in a chemical reaction.
 * Students know how to identify reactions that
involve oxidation and reduction and how to balance oxidationreduction
reactions.
Gases and Their Properties
 The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms
and molecules and explains the properties of gases. As a basis
for understanding this concept:
 Students know the random motion of molecules
and their collisions with a surface create the observable
pressure on that surface.
 Students know the random motion of molecules
explains the diffusion of gases.
 Students know how to apply the gas laws to relations
between the pressure, temperature, and volume of any amount
of an ideal gas or any mixture of ideal gases.
 Students know the values and meanings of standard
temperature and pressure (STP).
 Students know how to convert between the Celsius
and Kelvin temperature scales.
 Students know there is no temperature lower than
0 Kelvin.
 * Students know the kinetic theory of gases relates
the absolute temperature of a gas to the average kinetic
energy of its molecules or atoms.
 * Students know how to solve problems by using
the ideal gas law in the form PV = nRT.
 * Students know how to apply Dalton's law of
partial pressures to describe the composition of gases and
Graham's law to predict diffusion of gases.
Acids and Bases
 Acids, bases, and salts are three classes of compounds that
form ions in water solutions. As a basis for understanding this
concept:
 Students know the observable properties of acids,
bases, and salt solutions.
 Students know acids are hydrogeniondonating
and bases are hydrogenionaccepting substances.
 Students know strong acids and bases fully dissociate
and weak acids and bases partially dissociate.
 Students know how to use the pH scale to characterize
acid and base solutions.
 * Students know the Arrhenius, BrønstedLowry,
and Lewis acidbase definitions.
 * Students know how to calculate pH from the
hydrogenion concentration.
 * Students know buffers stabilize pH in acidbase
reactions.
Solutions
 Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances.
As a basis for understanding this concept:
 Students know the definitions of solute and solvent.
 Students know how to describe the dissolving
process at the molecular level by using the concept of random
molecular motion.
 Students know temperature, pressure, and surface
area affect the dissolving process.
 Students know how to calculate the concentration
of a solute in terms of grams per liter, molarity, parts
per million, and percent composition.
 * Students know the relationship between the
molality of a solute in a solution and the solution's depressed
freezing point or elevated boiling point.
 * Students know how molecules in a solution
are separated or purified by the methods of chromatography
and distillation.
Chemical Thermodynamics
 Energy is exchanged or transformed in all chemical reactions
and physical changes of matter. As a basis for understanding
this concept:
 Students know how to describe temperature and
heat flow in terms of the motion of molecules (or atoms).
 Students know chemical processes can either release
(exothermic) or absorb (endothermic) thermal energy.
 Students know energy is released when a material
condenses or freezes and is absorbed when a material evaporates
or melts.
 Students know how to solve problems involving
heat flow and temperature changes, using known values of
specific heat and latent heat of phase change.
 * Students know how to apply Hess's law to calculate
enthalpy change in a reaction.
 * Students know how to use the Gibbs free energy
equation to determine whether a reaction would be spontaneous.
Reaction Rates
 Chemical reaction rates depend on factors that influence
the frequency of collision of reactant molecules. As a basis
for understanding this concept:
 Students know the rate of reaction is the decrease
in concentration of reactants or the increase in concentration
of products with time.
 Students know how reaction rates depend on such
factors as concentration, temperature, and pressure.
 Students know the role a catalyst plays in increasing
the reaction rate.
 * Students know the definition and role of activation
energy in a chemical reaction.
Chemical Equilibrium
 Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process at the molecular
level. As a basis for understanding this concept:
 Students know how to use Le Chatelier's principle
to predict the effect of changes in concentration, temperature,
and pressure.
 Students know equilibrium is established when
forward and reverse reaction rates are equal.
 * Students know how to write and calculate an
equilibrium constant expression for a reaction.
Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry
 The bonding characteristics of carbon allow the formation
of many different organic molecules of varied sizes, shapes,
and chemical properties and provide the biochemical basis of
life. As a basis for understanding this concept:
 Students know large molecules (polymers), such
as proteins, nucleic acids, and starch, are formed by repetitive
combinations of simple subunits.
 Students know the bonding characteristics of
carbon that result in the formation of a large variety of
structures ranging from simple hydrocarbons to complex polymers
and biological molecules.
 Students know amino acids are the building blocks
of proteins.
 * Students know the system for naming the ten
simplest linear hydrocarbons and isomers that contain single
bonds, simple hydrocarbons with double and triple bonds,
and simple molecules that contain a benzene ring.
 * Students know how to identify the functional
groups that form the basis of alcohols, ketones, ethers,
amines, esters, aldehydes, and organic acids.
 * Students know the Rgroup structure of amino
acids and know how they combine to form the polypeptide
backbone structure of proteins.
Nuclear Processes
 Nuclear processes are those in which an atomic nucleus changes,
including radioactive decay of naturally occurring and humanmade
isotopes, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion. As a basis for
understanding this concept:
 Students know protons and neutrons in the nucleus
are held together by nuclear forces that overcome the electromagnetic
repulsion between the protons.
 Students know the energy release per gram of
material is much larger in nuclear fusion or fission reactions
than in chemical reactions. The change in mass (calculated
by E = mc2 ) is small but significant
in nuclear reactions.
 Students know some naturally occurring isotopes
of elements are radioactive, as are isotopes formed in nuclear
reactions.
 Students know the three most common forms of
radioactive decay (alpha, beta, and gamma) and know how
the nucleus changes in each type of decay.
 Students know alpha, beta, and gamma radiation
produce different amounts and kinds of damage in matter
and have different penetrations.
 * Students know how to calculate the amount of
a radioactive substance remaining after an integral number
of halflives have passed.
 * Students know protons and neutrons have substructures
and consist of particles called quarks.
